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Nghe An

Nghe An is located in 180 33' to 190 25' of Northern latitude, in 1020 53' to 1050 46' Eastern longitude, in focal place of Central Region. Nghe An borders on Thanh Hoa province to the North, Ha Tinh province to the South, Laos PDR to the West with borderline of 419 km long and East Sea to the East with the coastline of 82 km long. This location brings Nghe An into a vital linkage in the North-South socio-economic connection, form and development of marine economy, foreign economic relations and integration in broader international cooperation.

Area : 1,649,903.14 ha

Topography : Nghe An is located in the North East of Truong Son range, terrain variety, complexity and divided by the system of hills, rivers direction tilted from west - to North East - South. Highest peak is the peak Pulaileng (2.711m) in Ky Son district, the lowest plains districts Quynh Luu, Dien Chau, Yen Thanh have a place just as high as 0.2 m above sea level (the social Quynh Quynh Luu Thanh district). Hills constitute 83% of natural land area of the province.

a - Floating land: This sort of land is mainly concentrated in plain and coastal districts, comprising 5 land categories: sandy soil, alluvial, hill soil agglomerated; salty; alkkaline soil; infertile due to rice cultivation. Of which there are imperative 191,427 ha alluvial and sandy soil occupied. These are land categories fertile for agricultural farming. Following is feature of the two main sorts:
     - Old coastal sandy soil: 21,428 ha (concentrated along coastal areas), including physical components, aparted, low absorption. Substances such as humus, protein, phosphorus are poor, high kalinite but easily digested. This is also adequate sort of land for following plants: vegetables, groundnut, bean, mulberry, etc.
     - Alluvial soil is sufficient for rice farming and subsidy plants: inclusive alluvial soil annually raised, silts not raised, muddy deposits, old deposits with Feralit. This sort occupies about 163,202 ha, of which alluvial soil not raised annually occupies about 60%. Land topography is splited, sloping and uneven levelling, so erosion progress is continuously occurred on its surface and depth. This sort of soil is mainly located in plain area, mostly used for rice farming (about 74,000 ha). Strips of land, river dunes and old alluvial soil have high topography for maize and other industrial plants.
      - Beside the two above-mentioned main soil, there are beach sandy dunes and infertile earth not good for agricultural farming; however, this area is small.

b- Mainland: This sort of land is mainly located in mountainous areas (74,4%) including following land categories:
      *) Red yellow land developed from clay plaster (Fs)
This sort of land has total area of 433,357 ha, distributed in large range in most of following districts Tuong Duong, Con Cuong, Tan Ky, Anh Son, Thanh Chuong, Nghia Dan, Quy Hop.
Red yellow based-clay soil is almost located in semi-mountainous topography and low hills, steep sloping, with thick earth clays. This is fertile hilly/ mountainous land, particularly its physical characteristic (water and fertile absorption), adequate for development of industrial and fruit plants. During the period of time, this sort of soil is used to cultivate following plants: tea, orange, lemon, pineapple, pepper... The area of sort of land is very large in following districts: Anh Son, Thanh Chuong, Nghia Dan, Tan Ky, Quynh Luu. This is the potential of Nghe An compared with other localities in the North to develop industrial plants and fruit trees.
      *) Light yellow soil developed from bibbley-rock and sandstone (Fq):
This sort of land has total area of 315,055 ha distributed thinly along narrow strips located between schist ranges extended toward Northwest - Southeast of the province through many mountainous and hilly districts Thanh Chuong, Anh Son, Tan Ky, Tuong Duong, Ky Son.... Due to lighter physical component than clay schist earth, so light yellow based-bibbley-rock soil is easily eroded. The earth clay is rather thin and gravel and rock are remained in many places. In high mountainous topography areas, botanical coat is newly covered and wrapped with thick earth clays from 50-70 cm. light yellow based-bibbley-rock soil is infertile, low water absorption and not sticky, low clay component unabsorbed fertile. This soil is unable to plant for agricultural farming. In the highland it is able to plant some industrial trees but watershed must be maintained and it is to be protected from erosion for these plants grown.
      *) Red yellow soil developed from acid rock (Fa)
The area of about 217,101 ha distributed and scattered in following districts Anh Son, Con Cuong, Tuong Duong, Quy Chau... Most of red yellow acidrock - based soil has light physical component, infertile, easy to be eroded, much acidity (PHKCL< 4)  used for afforestation.
      *) Red grey lime -based soil (Fv)
The area of about 34,064 ha distributed and scattered in following districts: Tan Ky, Nam Dan, Quy Hop... Contrary to other sorts of land, red grey lime -  based soil located in low topography areas are thicker clays; in highland areas red grey lime-based soil is weathered and huskily eroded so the clay is thinner. However, most of lime-based soil normally has clay of over 50 cm thick. Red grey lime -based soil is suitable to plant long-term trees such as orange, tea, coffee, rubber... However, the area of lime-based soil is not large and scattered, enabled to combine with other soil to generate planting areas to produce effective yield
      *) Red brown basalt-based soil (Fk)
The area of about 13,000 ha mainly distributed in economic zone of Phu Quy plateau. This is fertile soil, water absorbed but not water-keeping, the surface clay is over 1 meter thick; the topography is levelling, (slope is smaller than 10o), is sufficient for long-term plants. This sort of land is almost used for production to plant rubber, coffee, and orange ... with effective yields.
      *) Red yellow Feralit mountainous soil, highland humus soil:
This sort of soil accounts for about 20% of land area. Although the clay is thick, possibility for development of agricultural farming is limited due to it is centred on high mountains, steep sloping topography and huskily scattered. This topography is fit for forestry production.

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